Thursday, 15 November 2012

10 New Rules of Scuba Diving

1. Reverse Dive Profiles Are OK

New Rule
It is permissible to dive deeper on your second dive than on your first, and to dive deeper on the later part of a dive than on the early part.

Old Rule
Until this year, all divers have been taught to go to their greatest planned depth early in the dive and then gradually work upward in a regular "stair-step" pattern. Similarly, they've been told to make the deepest dive of the day the first one. The rationale was that the shallower depths later provided decompression for the preceding greater depths.

Reason for the Change

Dive computers. Because computers can track your depth and time constantly and are pretty good at math, it's possible to know your nitrogen exposure accurately regardless of your profile. Tables, by contrast, can account for only your greatest depth, and this crude approximation of nitrogen exposure still mandates a conservative approach.

Exceptions to the Rule

Obviously, divers using only tables must still follow the old rules. And even when using a computer it's still smart to dive deeper first. Ascending profiles give you more bottom time and a greater margin of safety against DCS.

2. Lower Minimum Age

New Rule

The Recreational Scuba Training Council, which sets many industry standards, dropped its minimum age requirement for junior certification near the end of 1999. As a result, PADI, SDI, SSI and NASDS (which has merged with SSI) have dropped their minimum age requirements for junior certification to 10. SSI has a pool-only "Scuba Ranger" program for 8- to 12-year-olds. NAUI and YMCA are retaining the age-12 minimum, at least for now.

Old Rule

Minimum age for junior certification was 12. (Junior certification requires supervision by a fully certified adult.)
Reason for the Change

To promote the sport. Lots of baby-boomer divers have kids, and the growing popularity of resort diving meant a market for family dive vacations. "The future of diving will be determined by kids," says Bret Gilliam, president of SDI, the first agency to lower the age. "It's a great step forward to recognize the family unit as key to our sport's growth."

Exceptions to the Rule

It's still up to the instructor to decide whether a child is mature enough to dive. Being 10 does not create a right to be certified.
The new junior certifications typically have various restrictions. In PADI, kids are limited to 20 feet in confined water first, then 40 feet in open water. Juniors must be accompanied by an agency-affiliated instructor, a certified parent or another certified adult. Check specific agencies for their rules.

3. Universal Referrals

New Rule
Getting certified? Beginning in 1998, you could take classroom and pool sessions in your hometown from an instructor with Agency "A," then fly to warm water for open-water sessions under an instructor with Agency "B"—as long as the agencies had agreements to recognize each other's standards and instructors. This means you can choose from many more warm-water resorts for your open-water sessions.

Old Rule
Classroom, pool work and open-water dives all had to be with the same training agency. If you wanted to do the open-water dives in the tropics, you had to pick a resort with an instructor affiliated with the same agency.

Reason for the Change
Customer convenience. Smaller agencies with few instructors in place at resorts found it necessary to band together to offer greater options—especially when certification standards are virtually identical.

Exceptions to the Rule
PADI. According to PADI, it issues 70 percent of all certifications. The agency still requires that all phases of your training be with PADI instructors.

4. Slower Ascent Rate

New Rule

Ascend no faster than 30 feet per minute—one foot every two seconds.

Old Rule

The usual rate was 60 feet per minute until the U.S. Navy adopted the 30-foot-per-minute rate in 1996 and training agencies followed suit.
Reason for the Change

Research. Navy studies found that a 30-foot-per-minute rate resulted in fewer cases of DCS than the older 60-foot-per-minute rate. A slow ascent is really a rolling decompression stop, allowing your body to flush out and exhale dissolved nitrogen before it forms bubbles.

Exceptions to the Rule
The 30-foot-per-minute rate may not always be practical for the whole ascent, especially when you are deep and low on air or approaching hypothermia. In that case a faster rate, up to 60 feet per minute, is acceptable, but for the final 60 feet of your ascent, you should slow to 30 feet per minute.

5. The Safety Stop

New rule - Make a safety stop at 15 feet for at least three to five minutes before ascending to the surface?longer for deeper and more strenuous dives. Safety stops allow your body extra time to eliminate nitrogen.
New Rule

Make a safety stop at the end of dives. That means you should pause at about 15 feet for a minimum of three to five minutes before your final ascent to the surface. Some experts recommend safety stops as long as 10 to 15 minutes under certain conditions.

Old Rule
Make a what? Safety stops were not taught prior to the mid-1980s.

Reason for the Change
More research. The new rule recognizes that all dives are decompression dives, and that DCS can and does occur even when you've stayed within so-called "no-decompression limits." Studies clearly show that pausing at about 15 feet allows you to offgas nitrogen before ascending through the zone of greatest pressure change, near the surface. Nitrogen that hasn't been eliminated can bubble out of tissues rapidly during the last part of the ascent, causing DCS.
There are other safety reasons for the stop. The air in your BC and the bubbles in your wetsuit also expand rapidly during the last 15 feet and may cause you to become significantly positive without realizing it. Stopping gives you a chance to adjust your buoyancy so you don't lose control of your ascent.
Safety stops also allow you to survey surface conditions and boat traffic before surfacing.

Exceptions to the Rule
You needn't stay at exactly 15 feet, especially if you're elbowing a crowd of other divers. Anywhere between 10 and 20 feet is fine. And although three to five minutes is a good minimum, longer, deeper dives call for longer safety stops.

6. Neutrally Buoyant Ascents

New rule - Remain neutrally buoyant during ascents. Neutral buoyancy eliminates the risk of run-away ascents and the strain of finning against negative buoyancy.
New Rule
Become neutrally buoyant before beginning your ascent and maintain neutral buoyancy throughout.

Old Rule
Dump all air so you are negative before beginning your ascent and fin upward against negative buoyancy.

Reason for the Change
The old rule was designed to prevent runaway ascents. But Navy studies revealed that the strain of finning hard while ascending sometimes causes divers to hold their breath. Also, it can lead to air trapping in the lungs. Both present embolism risks. The change also reflects greater confidence in modern BCs, particularly their dump valves.

Exceptions to the Rule
In an ascent from very shallow depths, say 30 feet or less, it's OK to fin up against slight negative buoyancy. The risk of losing control because of rapid buoyancy changes in your BC and exposure suit, and the low stress in finning such a short distance, makes this the better bet.

7. No More Buddy Breathing

New Rule

In a no-air emergency, depend on a redundant system or your buddy's octopus, or make an independent emergency ascent. Do not attempt to "buddy breathe" from a single regulator unless you and your buddy have practiced it.

Old Rule
Before octos, ponies and devices like the "Spare Air" were common, divers were taught to pass one regulator back and forth while making a slow ascent.

Reason for the Change
Safety. Experience showed that unless both buddies had practiced buddy breathing and were skilled at it, the attempt was likely to injure both divers, not just one.
Typically, buddy breathing divers become so absorbed in passing the regulator that they neglect to control their buoyancy, and a too-rapid ascent with embolism could result. Or the diver who has passed the regulator holds his breath instead of exhaling slowly, also an embolism risk.
If you are out of air and neither you nor your buddy has a backup system, your best move is to make an emergency swimming ascent: swimming to the surface while keeping your throat open by slowly exhaling.

8. The Buddy System

Every training agency is emphatic on the need to always dive with a buddy. Yet solo diving has long been common, particularly among underwater photographers. Experience, and incomplete statistics, don't indicate that solo diving is more dangerous than buddy diving, and some divers argue that solo diving is actually safer.

9. The Snorkel

Most of us were taught that a snorkel is mandatory gear on every dive, just like a pair of fins. But increasingly, divers are leaving the snorkel in the gear bag much of the time.
Why? They've come to the conclusion that a snorkel, when attached to your mask, is more often a hazard than a help. The long tube—dangling from its midpoint so the hook-like gizmos at the ends can wander around—is pretty effective at catching kelp, fishing line and camera straps. And, given the importance of your mask, your mask strap is about the worst place to mount it or anything else.
Many divers now save the snorkel for special occasions, like a long surface swim from their entry point to the dive site, and carry it in a pocket or strapped to their body.

10. The Dive Computer

The dive computer is probably the most important safety advance in the sport. Much more important than a snorkel, and arguably more important than an octopus, a dive computer may well be considered mandatory equipment before long. SDI already incorporates dive computers into student training from the outset. "Virtually all divers now use dive computers to make diving safer and more enjoyable. Why not establish that practice from the beginning?" says CEO Bret Gilliam. "Dive tables have simply been supplanted by advances in technology."

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Death in the Shallows

Lesson ;

Jolie kept hoping things would get better. She had been certified a year earlier, but had been in the water only once since then. Her first dive of the day had been shaky, but she got through it. She just couldn’t get the hang of her buoyancy, and felt like she was either banging off the bottom or floating to the surface. During the surface interval, her buddy told her she just needed practice and it would get better. She kept reminding herself to relax and breathe slowly and easily.

During second dive, She was uncomfortable on the surface, trying to remember everything her buddy had told her and the lessons she had learned in class a year before. As soon as the water closed over her head, she began breathing quickly. Her buddy said later that it looked like a constant stream of air bubbles coming out of her regulator. She descended quickly and hit the rocky bottom on her knees. A group of students had just cleared the area and silt had been stirred up, reducing visibility to less than normal. Jolie stayed on her knees for a moment. She took the regulator out of her mouth and began scrambling for the disconnected inflator so she could add air into her BCD. She never found it. Her panic escalated. The only thought that reached her mind was that she needed to be on the -surface. Air.

Jolie’s buddy grabbed her -alternate air-source regulator and tried to give it to her. When she refused it, he tried to give her his own, but she refused it as well. Without warning, she bolted for the surface. Resuscitation efforts on the beach and at a nearby hospital were unsuccessful.


This is a classic case of panic leading to a dive fatality. Jolie wasn’t thinking clearly in the water. She took out her regulator before she found her inflator hose. Just those few seconds without an air supply were enough to tip her over the edge.

There is very little you can do for someone in a panic state, aside from removing them from the situation and allowing them time to calm down. This is extremely difficult and dangerous underwater. But while the panic ultimately killed Jolie, the triggers on the dive caused the panic in the first place.
Jolie had latent problems with claustrophobia. Struggling with her buoyancy got her agitated to the point that she wasn’t thinking clearly. A root cause of this issue was the disconnected low-pressure inflator. She entered the water on the second dive with the same problems, now even more agitated.

 An ascent from 10 feet was more than enough of a pressure change to cause a lung overexpansion injury and cause an arterial gas embolism, or AGE. This causes strokelike symptoms as a large air bubble is introduced to the brain, cutting off blood supply. It can also cause death rapidly. This is the reason scuba divers are trained to never hold their breath.

Lessons for Life

1 Don’t make dives you aren’t comfortable making. Don’t allow peer pressure to goad you into a dive you aren’t ready for.

2 If you feel panicked or have trouble catching your breath underwater, stop on the bottom or hold onto something stable and attempt to relax. Wait for your breathing to settle before you attempt to swim on. If that fails, abort the dive.

3 Be properly equipped for the dives you are making. Making do with improper equipment is unsafe.

4 Seek additional training and experience in a situation supervised by a dive instructor.
Eric Douglas co-authored the book Scuba Diving Safety, and has written a series of dive-adventure novels and short stories. Check out his website,

Scuba Gear Care and Maintenance Tips

Take Good Care of Your Scuba Gear

Whether you've only seen a scuba diver in action or you’re already a diver yourself, you know that diving is an equipment intensive activity.
Keep your scuba gear in tip top shapeTo protect your scuba gear (and yourself given that scuba equipment is essentially life-support equipment) it’s important to care for it correctly. Most scuba gear comes with instructional manuals describing manufacturer recommendations for care and maintenance, but here are some general suggestions to help keep your scuba gear in tip top shape:
  • One good thing about scuba gear is that because it’s waterproof, you can wash it. In fact, all scuba gear should be rinsed in clean, fresh water after every dive. Then, it should be dried before storing it in a cool, dry place out of direct sunlight.
  • Remember to dry and firmly replace the regulator’s dust cap before rinsing the regulator to avoid any water entering the first stage. Ideally, rinse the regulator while it is still attached to the scuba tank and pressurized. That way no water will enter at all.
  • Have your scuba gear and equipment serviced regularlyUse clips and other attachments to keep all hoses and gauges close to your body while scuba diving.  This prevents them from dragging across sharp rocks or coral. This also keeps them from or getting snagged or dirty.
  • Handle scuba tanks with care. They are heavy and you shouldn’t leave them standing up unattended - they caln fall over and damage the valve or nearby toes.
  • You should rinse both the inside and outside of your BCD. Make sure to drain the water, then always store your BCD partially inflated.
  • Regularly inspect your mask strap, fin straps, snorkel and regulator mouthpieces and hoses for any sign of wear and tear. Sunlight, stretching and teeth easily damage these items so you might need to replace them sooner than expected.
  • After rinsing your wetsuit, hang it up to dry inside out on a wide hanger. Handle your scuba gear with care
  • Consider completing the PADI Equipment Specialist course to learn more about caring for your scuba gear
Put together a spare parts kit with the most commonly broken, lost or worn out items:
Fin and mask straps
  • O-rings
  • Snorkel keeper
  • Silicone grease
  • Quick release buckles
  • Pliers, screwdrivers, adjustable wrench, Allen wrench and pocket knife

Sunday, 16 September 2012

SIpadan Underwater Photo

Sipadan is the only oceanic island in Malaysia, rising 600 metres (2,000 ft) from the seabed. It is located in the Celebes Sea off the east coast of Sabah, East Malaysia (which is on the island of Borneo). It was formed by living corals growing on top of an extinct volcanic cone that took thousands of years to develop. Sipadan is located at the heart of the Indo-Pacific basin, the centre of one of the richest marine habitats in the world. More than 3,000 species of fish and hundreds of coral species have been classified in this ecosystem. Sipadan has been rated by many dive journals as one of the top destinations for diving in the world.

Frequently seen in the waters around Sipadan: green and hawksbill turtles(which mate and nest there), enormous schools of barracuda in tornado-like formations as well as large schools of big-eye trevally, and bumphead parrotfish. Pelagic species such as manta rays, eagle rays, scalloped hammerhead sharks and whale sharks also visit Sipadan.
A turtle tomb lies underneath the column of the island, formed by an underwater limestone cave with a labyrinth of tunnels and chambers that contain many skeletal remains of turtles that become lost and drown before finding the surface

I'm just came back from sipadan last week. Below my underwater photo from Sipadan that been capture with Canon G 12 + single strobe YS01.This is my first time i using the strobe. So I stiil learning how to use the strobe correctly and to avoid back scatter.Enjoy it

Hard coral

A school of fish hunting for food

Coral Fan at edge of wall at Sipadan Island

Jack fish

Jack fish at Baracudda Point,SIpadan




Soft Coral


Giant Lobster..ready for cook

Friday, 17 August 2012

Underwater Photo Retouching

Underwater Photo Retouching with Photoshop
(underwater, photoshop, underwater tutorial,color,underwater color spectrum, retouching,photography)

One of the most common underwater photography difficulties is trying to capture a photo without extreme color and contrast loss. In this Photoshop Tutorial, you'll learn how to analyze and restore the color and contrast of underwater photos.

Introduction :

With increasing depth underwater, sunlight is absorbed, and the amount of visible light diminishes. Because absorption is greater for long wavelengths (red end of the visible spectrum) than for short wavelengths (blue end of the visible spectrum), the colour spectrum is rapidly altered with increasing depth. White objects at the surface appear bluish underwater, and red objects appear dark, even black. Although light penetration will be less if water is turbid, in the very clear water of the open ocean less than 25% of the surface light reaches a depth of 10 m (33 feet). At 100 m (330 ft) the light present from the sun is normally about 0.5% of that at the surface.

To illustrate, I’ve recreated how some common items would look at different depths.Notice how the red is removed from the orange, leaving a little color while the blue text is unaffected.
more info on :

Saturday, 28 July 2012

The guide/instructor/buddy will take care of me.

The guide/instructor/buddy will take care of me.

It’s amazing to many of us how easily supposed well-trained divers can turn into “sea sheep,” simply following the herd without asking simple questions like, “where are we going, and how long will we stay?” All too often, divers regard dive guides as unerring, and will simply follow along. And while most of the time professional dive guides will be sufficiently conservative as to avoid decompression obligations, there are exceptions. According to the latest DAN data, 7 percent of the 348 divers injured in 2002 were relying on someone else rather than the tables or their own dive computer. What were they thinking? The take-home lesson for our students is that each of us is responsible for our own safety, and that means doing our own planning.
Other diving myths revolve around physiology and the physics of diving. Here again, we find some common myths and misconceptions that should be cleared up.

Sunday, 22 July 2012

Optical Ocean I-DAS Flat Tray & Sea & Sea Double YS-01 Strobe Package

Optical Ocean I-DAS Flat Tray & Sea & Sea Double YS-01 Strobe Package


 List price: $1,325.00  

You save: $127.19 (10%)
The Optical Ocean I-DAS Flat Tray and Double Sea & Sea YS-01 Lighting Package is the answer for photographers who want a durable and adjustable tray set with moderate lighting power.
I-DAS TRL Flat Tray Double Arm includes handles and arms for 2 strobes. Compact and sturdy, made from black anodized aluminum. Handles adjust in width for large or small hands, housings, gloves, etc. Will accommodate most point and shoot housings from major manufacturers such as 10Bar, Canon, Olympus, Fuji, Panasonic, Fantasea and many others. It will fit moderately large mirrorless housings as well. The TRL Flat Tray is the only tray we recommend for Ikelite UltraCompact and 10Bar housings, please select extra mounting hardware option.
The Sea & Sea YS-01 strobe packs a lot of features in a small size. It has a guide number of 20 with a beam angle of 100x100 degrees. It has 10 steps of manual power, D-TTL Auto operation and a target light. It will sync with most point and shoot cameras via the included sync cords.
Optical Ocean Sales/Sea & Sea parts. See individual items for more details.

  • [Guide Number (ISO 100/m) (land)] : 32, 24 (with Diffuser 100 attached), 20 (with Diffuser 120 attached)
  • [Beam Angle] : 80°x80°  (without diffuser), 100°x100°(diffuser 100), 120° x 120° (diffuser 120)
  • [Batteries] : 4xAA A: 6V Ni-MH: 4.8V
  • [Number of Flashes*1] : A: 150 Ni-MH: 250
  • [Recycle time (full)*2] : A: 2.8 sec. Ni-MH: 1.9 sec.
  • [Color temperature] : 5600K
  • [Color temperature w/diffuser] : 5250K
  • [Depth rating] : 100m  / 330ft
  • [Dimensions (WxHxD)] (Excluding protruding part(s) and the arm holder.): 87x135x111mm / 3.5 x 5.4 x 4.4 inches
  • [Weight] : 650g / 22.8oz (w/o batteries)
  • [Underwater weight] : 5g / 0.4oz(w/ batteries)
  • [Others]
  • Exposure control: DS-TTL II,  Slave TTL, Light level control dial (GN): 1 / 1.4 / 2 / 2.8 /4 / 5.6 /8 / 11 / 16 / 22 / 32 (11 steps)
  • Pre-flash control: Equipped with pre-flash cancel mode
  • DS-TTL II function
  • Slave function
  • Auto power OFF function
  • Sync cord: 5-pin Sync cord/N, Fiber-Optic Cable (L-type)
  • Over-pressure relief valve
  • LED target light

    *1 Number of flashes and recycle time depends on the battery brand, temperature and frequency of use.
    *2  Number of flashes and recycle time of Ni-MH batteries were tested on 2400 mAh batteries.

The best Lighting Package on Net

List price: $804.00  
You save: $105.12 (13%)

Buy in Now

The exclusive Optical Ocean Sales YS-01 S-Tray Lighting Set is the answer for underwater photographers that want a great quality, fully-configured underwater camera system. Includes the ergonomic, adjustable S-Tray with integrated handles.

Compatible with most point and shoot underwater housings from major manufacturers (except Ikelite) that use a tripod-mount screw, including Canon, Olympus, Fuji, Fantasea and Panasonic.

The S-Tray is made from black anodized aluminum and is a medium weight system. It features a 3-part tray that can be easily adjusted for different sized housings, hands, gloves or shooting styles.  Interior width expands to approximately 11.75. The S-shape of the foam covered handles conforms to your hands while gripping the housing, and is very comfortable and relaxed to hold. The tray includes two base to ball connectors (OOEC-06).

This package comes with a fully-adjustable modular ball and joint arm system (OOARM-01) and an extra YS mount arm and clamp to hold a focus light. The YS mount fits any Sea and Sea or Fantasea strobe and focus light, adapters are available for Inon or Ikelite strobes. Ball and joint arm systems are much stronger, adjustable and will stay in one position better than flex arms. You can expand this with extra arms and a triple clamp (#3013) to fit a second strobe, as well as the focus light.

Included is the Sea & Sea YS-01 strobe and fiber optic sync cord. It has a guide number of 20 and features 10 steps of manual power, D-TTL auto operation and a target light. Also in the package is the small, powerful NanoFocus Light (6022) to allow you to see and frame easier, as well as allowing your camera to focus faster. This is essential for the lower light situations found underwater or for night diving.

You can upgrade the focus light to the excellent and much brighter Big Blue 1x5 AFO which has a wider beam and is more useful for night diving or in temperate waters.

Optical Ocean Sales/Sea & Sea/Fantasea parts. See individual items for more details.

  • Optical Ocean S-Tray (OOSTRAY-01)
  • 6 ball, 2x 4 strobe mount arms, 3 clamps.
  • 2 Ball Mount adapters (OOEC-06)
  • Sea & Sea YS-01 (SS-03112)
  • Fiber Optic Sync Cord & Adapter
  • NanoFocus Light (6022)

Thursday, 21 June 2012

Myth: Snorkeling is just as good as scuba diving


Don't get me wrong. I like to snorkel--floating around on the surface peering down on the reef from above is a great way to spend time between dives. But just as good? No way! Not if you like action.
Snorkeling is sort of like watching a football game from the window of the Goodyear blimp high above. Diving is like suiting up, running down the tunnel and getting in the game. Strap a tank on your back and you are a player--swimming with the sharks as equals, getting up close and personal with giant Goliath grouper, or, for a good laugh, looking up and seeing the soft, bulging underbellies of all those snorkelers drifting like flotsam on the surface and blocking out the sunlight.

Saturday, 16 June 2012

Scuba Divers are easy shark bait.

2910003541 e2ff3f6ffc Myth Buster: 5 Beginner Scuba Diving Misconceptions Dispelled

Scuba Divers are easy shark bait.

Let’s just say your chances of getting hit by lightning, dying of a wasp, bee or snake bite are a lot more than becoming a shark’s supper. Like most animals Sharks too are weary of foreign objects (read as humans in the ocean!). Look at it from a shark’s point of view- if you came across a noisy bubble blowing, large strange shaped creature that often flashes bright lights (with flashlights or camera’s) and not to mention in groups or at least more than one, would you stick around to figure whether they would harm you? If you’re still thinking, the answer is No. Most sharks with an exception of very few species, don’t often stick around when they spot groups of divers. However we must never forget that we are on their turf and the rule of the wild still holds true- never draw attention to yourself, provoke them or feed them or you could be mistaken as a snack yourself. It’s not to say there have never been any unprovoked shark attacks, but most often it’s a case of mistaken identity and the number of deaths from shark bites negligible as compared to the number of people who have come into contact with the creature diving, snorkeling, swimming or boating.

Scuba Diving is a high-risk, dangerous sport.

3665462673 b0bf12fa39 Myth Buster: 5 Beginner Scuba Diving Misconceptions Dispelled

1) Scuba Diving is a high-risk, dangerous sport.

Diving is just as dangerous as any other activity/sport like skiing, football and basketball even. Injuries from motor vehicle accidents far exceed those of diving. I’m not saying there isn’t an element of danger involved in the sport, but that’s why there is a training requirement and a certification process involved to Scuba dive. What’s important to remember is that while there are potential hazards, it is a diver’s knowledge, training, judgment and decision making that limits or controls that risk. Research has shown that the injury rate in diving is just 1 per 2,000 participants or 50 per 100,000 as compared to 21,300 injuries per 100,000 participants of basketball!

Sunday, 3 June 2012

Cheap Open water diving Course Rm 900

We provide scuba diving courses for beginners from age 12 years old onwards. All equipment will be provided during course, no need to buy! Installments for course payment can be arranged.Courses available in 4 languages; BM, Chinese, Tamil and English. Internationally recognized certification from Instructor Dive Development, Europe (IDD)
Open Water Course Consist of:
IDD Open Water Diver Manual, Log Book, Dive Table, IDD document bag & C-card.
6 Pool Lessons, 6 Theory session
2 open water dives
Call US for our Year End Special Offer!
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0139054481 - Saharudin 


Myth: You have to be a speedo-sporting competItive swimmer to be a diver

Illustration by Dan Vasconcellos
Sure, ultra-fit, competitive swimmers make great divers because they're comfortable in the water and they're in great shape, but if the logic of this myth were true, I suppose only Tour de France racers would ride bikes.
Diving is an active sport and the better shape you're in, the easier it will be, but any healthy individual with at least an average fitness level can do it. This myth is most likely fueled by the fact that there is a basic swim test at the start of scuba lessons. You'll need the endurance to swim about 200 yards nonstop, but there's no time limit and it's not a race. The instructor also needs to know that you have basic water skills and are comfortable submerging your face in water. That's it. And when you consider that there are divers from age eight to age 80 who have passed this grueling test of physical ability, it's pretty clear that anyone with an activity level above that of a chronic couch potato can do it. So, get off the couch and go diving already. And please--regardless of your fitness level--leave the Speedo at home. OK?

 more on :

Myth: I have to buy a ton of gear just to learn

Illustration by Dan Vasconcellos
Scuba is a gear-intensive sport, but you only need three basic items to start lessons--a mask, a snorkel and a pair of fins. These are personal gear items and they need to fit well for you to have a good time, so it's worth buying them even if the shop provides loaners.
All the other gear is available to rent, usually at a discount rate to students, and sometimes the use of the more complex equipment is included in the dive package price.
Once you are a full-fledged diver, you will ultimately want to purchase your own gear. It will be tempting to max out the plastic and buy everything in one fell swoop, and if you've got the room on your cards, go for it. But most beginning divers continue to make use of rental gear and acquire their own items one piece at a time.

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Tuesday, 22 May 2012

Do I Need to Know How to Swim Before Learning to Scuba Dive?:

Once upon a time, when people wore bell-bottom pants and flowers in their hair, scuba diving had the reputation of being a physically demanding and dangerous activity best left to Navy Seals and Jacques Cousteau. Scuba diving has evolved since its early days and this is no longer the case. Advances in scuba equipment, the use of dive computers and sophisticated dive planning, as well as a better understanding of diving physiology have made diving safer and easier than it once was. Almost anyone can learn to dive.

Do I Need to Know How to Swim Before Learning to Scuba Dive?:

Not exactly. Before enrolling in a scuba course, prospective divers should be relatively comfortable in the water. While it is not necessary to have swum competitively in high school, a diving student should not be so terrified of the water that he is uncomfortable in the deep end of the swimming pool. To enroll in a one-day experience course, a person need only be comfortable in the water. To earn a scuba diving certification, a student diver must pass a watermanship assessment for scuba diving, which varies depending upon the organization and certification level. For example, one organization requires that students tread water/ float for 10 minutes, and swim 200 meters (or snorkel 300 meters) without stopping.

Am I Physically Fit for Scuba Diving?:

All scuba diving students must answer a scuba diving medical questionnaire before beginning a diving course. The high pressure a diver experiences underwater effects how his body functions in a variety of ways. Physical conditions that may not be bothersome, or even noticeable, in everyday life may be dangerous underwater. Lung problems (such as a collapsed lung or asthma), ear issues (such as problems with ear equalization), allergies, and certain diseases are all potentially dangerous underwater. Some medications are contraindicated for diving. Divers should carefully read, and then honestly answer the diving medical questionnaire before beginning to dive, and they should review it periodically throughout their diving careers.

Am I the Right Age for Scuba Diving?:

The age requirements for scuba diving vary amoung countries and scuba diving organizations. As a general rule, children aged 8 and above may scuba dive, depending upon their maturity level. Most diving organizations offer special children's courses in shallow, controlled conditions for kids aged 8 and above, and allow children 10 and older to enroll in certification courses. In the USA, most organizations require children to be 12 years old before certification. Learn more about children and scuba diving.
Currently, no upper age limit for scuba diving exists. In fact, my oldest open water certification student was a 82 year old female, and she turned out to be a great diver! Research into the risks associated with diving at an advanced age is ongoing.

Can I Scuba Dive With a Disability?:

Scuba diving is becoming an increasingly popular sport for people with physical disabilities. Special gear has been developed for divers who may have difficulty using standard dive gear, such as webbed gloves for divers who cannot swim with fins. However, in many cases specialized gear is not necessary. Divers are weightless and move freely underwater, so the weight of the scuba gear is not an impediment. Every new diver must relearn how to efficiently use his body in a completely foreign environment. Divers who have a physical disability are starting at exactly the same point as any other new diver – zero. Read about a hearing-impaired person learning to scuba dive.

Do I Have a Good Reason for Learning to Scuba Dive?:

The fact that most people can learn to scuba dive does not necessarily mean that everyone should. Before enrolling in a scuba diving course, a potential diver should consider his reasons for doing so. Divers who want to learn to dive because it seems like a risky adrenaline-filled sport should reconsider – properly done, recreational scuba diving is a sport about control and relaxation. Furthermore, a person should never take up scuba diving simply to please a spouse, parent or friend. While these people may serve as inspiration, for diving to be safe and enjoyable, a person needs to want to be underwater. The good news is that if you want to learn to dive, you most likely can. Welcome to the 70% of the world that most people never get to see!

All About Decompression Sickness

Also known as The Bends and Caisson Disease, Decompression Sickness is an illness that can affect divers or other people (such as miners) who are in a situation that involves pressure rapidly decreasing around the body.
DCS, as it is commonly know, is caused by a build up of nitrogen bubbles in the body. When we breathe, approximately 79 of the air we're breathing is nitrogen. As we descend in water, the pressure around our bodies increases, causing nitrogen to be absorbed into our body tissues. This is not actually harmful and it's quite possible for the body to continue to absorb nitrogen until it reaches a point called saturation, which is the point at which the pressure in the tissues equals the surrounding pressure.
The problem arises when this pressure needs to be released. In order to release the nitrogen slowly from the body, a diver must ascend slowly and carry out decompression stops if necessary - this allows the nitrogen to slowly seep out of the body tissues and either immediately revert to being a gas or to become tiny harmless bubbles which will eventually become revert to gas. This process is called "Off-gassing" and is normally carried out through the lungs.
If a diver ascends too fast and the nitrogen escapes the body tissue too quickly it becomes bubbles in the body and this leads to Decompression Sickness. The bubbles must normally be on the arterial side of the circulatory system to be harmful - they are usually harmless on the venous side. There are several types of Decompression Sickness:

Type I Decompression Sickness

Type I Decompression Sickness is the least serious form of Decompression Sickness. It normally involves only pain in the body and is not immediately life threatening. It is important to note that symptoms of Type I Decompression Sickness may be warning signs of more serious problems.
  • Cutaneous Decompression Sickness
    This is when the nitrogen bubbles come out of solution in skin capillaries. This normally results in a red rash, often on the shoulders and chest.
  • Joint and Limb Pain Decompression Sickness
    This type is characterized by aching in the joints. It is not known exactly what causes the pain as bubbles in the joint would not have this effect. The common theory is that it is caused by the bubbles aggravating bone marrow, tendons, and joints. The pain can be in one place or it can move around the joint. It is unusual for bisymmetrical symptoms to occur.

Type II Decompression Sickness

Type II Decompression Sickness is the most serious and can be immediately life-threatening. The main effect is on the nervous system.
  • Neurological Decompression Sickness
    When nitrogen bubbles affect the nervous system they can cause problems throughout the body. This type of Decompression Sickness normally shows as tingling, numbness, respiratory problems, and unconsciousness. Symptoms can spread quickly and if left untreated can lead to paralysis or even death.
  • Pulmonary Decompression Sickness
    This is a rare form of Decompression Sickness that occurs when bubbles form in lung capillaries. Fortunately, the majority of the time bubbles dissolve naturally through the lungs. However, it is possible for them to interrupt blood flow to the lungs which can lead to serious and life-threatening respiratory and heart problems.
  • Cerebral Decompression Sickness
    It is possible for bubbles that make their way into the arterial blood stream to move to the brain and to cause an arterial gas embolism. This is extremely dangerous and can be identified by symptoms such as blurred vision, headaches, confusion, and unconsciousness.

Other Forms of Decompression Sickness

Extreme tiredness is very common in cases of Decompression Sickness and can sometimes be the only symptom of Decompression Sickness present. It is not know what causes this but you should be aware that extreme fatigue could be a sign of more serious problems. It is also possible for Decompression Sickness to occur in the inner-ear. This is caused by bubbles forming in the cochlea's perilymph during decompression. The result can be hearing loss, dizziness, ringing of the ears, and vertigo.


Decompression Sickness can manifest itself in many different ways and has many different symptoms, but the most common symptoms are:
  • Extreme Fatigue
  • Joint and Limb Pain
  • Tingling
  • Numbness
  • Red Rash on Skin
  • Respiratory Problems
  • Heart Problems
  • Dizziness
  • Blurred Vision
  • Headaches
  • Confusion
  • Unconsciousness
  • Ringing of the Ears
  • Vertigo
  • Stomach Sickness 

Risk Factors

Every diver has a different level of risk of Decompression Sickness. Many risk factors are still not fully understood, but there are a few basic factors that doctors agree increase the chance of developing Decompression Sickness:
  • Bodyfat
    The theory is that nitrogen absorbs more easily into fat, so an overweight diver is at a greater risk of decompression sickness.
  • Exercise
    Interestingly, exercise has both a positive and negative effect. Exercise at least 12 hours before a dive seems to produce proteins that protect the body and decrease the risk of Decompression Sickness. On the other hand, exercise less than 12 hours before a dive can raise the number of gas micronuclei on which bubbles form and this increases the risk of Decompression Sickness. Exercise immediately after a dive increases the risk of bubbles forming as blood pressure is increased and bubbles can more easily be transferred from the venous to the arterial side of the circulatory system.
  • Gender
    Theoretically women should have a higher risk of Decompression Sickness due to the fact that women typically have a higher bodyfat content. However, this has not been proven in studies and it's possible that gender does not affect the chances of suffering from Decompression Sickness.
  • Age
    Generally, older people are at an increased risk of Decompression Sickness. This is due to less efficient circulatory and respiratory systems.
  • Fitness
    Fitness definitely decreases the risk of Decompression Sickness. A fitter body is able to tolerate more physical stress, including Decompression Sickness.
  • Dehydration
    Dehydration causes less blood to be available for gas exchange which makes it more difficult for the body to off-gas, increasing the risk of Decompression Sickness.
  • Injury and Illness
    Injury and illness can affect normal circulation, increasing the risk of Decompression Sickness.
  • Alcohol
    Consuming alcohol before or after a dive accelerates circulation which helps tissues to load with gas. Alcohol also dilates capillaries which can increase the rate of nitrogen released.
  • Carbon Dioxide
    Improper breathing can lead to elevated levels of carbon dioxide which interferes with the bodies ability to transport gas. This will lead to an increased chance of Decompression Sickness.
  • Cold
    It is generally believed by doctors that diving in cold water increases the risk of Decompression Sickness. This is due to the body working harder to keep warm as it becomes colder. Meaning that when the body is warmer it is able to absorb gas normally but as it becomes cold it has difficult offing the gas.
  • Altitude and Flying After Diving
    When ascending on land or in a plane, the atmospheric pressure changes and this increases the chances of Decompression Sickness. It is best not to ascend above 300 meters (1000 feet) or fly after diving. Consult the current flying after diving guidelines to know when it is safe to fly.
  • Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO) - Hole in the Heart
    As a fetus, a baby doesn't breathe and needs a way for blood to bypass the lungs until it is born. The body achieves this by having a small opening in the middle of the heart that allows blood to bypass the lungs. Normally, this hole would close within a year of birth, but in approximately 20-34 of people this does not happen, leaving a permanent opening in the heart. Usually, a flap grows over the opening and there is no effect. However, in some cases the flap allows blood to pass through the opening. This means that bubbles are more easily able to pass from the venous to the arterial side of the circulatory system, greatly increasing the risk of Decompression Sickness. It has been found that a large proportion of divers who suffered from Decompression Sickness had a PFO.
  • Reverse Profiles
    The jury is still out on reverse profiling, or making a deeper dive after a shallower dive. Theoretically it should increase the risk of Decompression Sickness, but this has not been proven scientifically. It would still be better to err on the side of caution.


    As there are many risk factors, there are also many methods of prevention. Here's a basic checklist that will help you lower your risk of suffering from Decompression Sickness:
    • Always ascend slowly and safely from every dive
    • Don't push your limits and do all required decompression stops
    • Keep physically fit and within a healthy weight range
    • Don't exercise within 12 hours of diving
    • Don't ascend to altitude or fly immediately after diving
    • Breathe normally throughout the dive, don't exert yourself or skip breathe
    • Make sure you're adequately hydrated before every dive
    • Don't drink alcohol before or after diving and never dive when hungover
    • Get checked out by a doctor to find out if you have a PFO
    • Avoid reverse profiling - just in case


    Immediate on the scene treatment consists of oxygen therapy and basic first aid. This should be followed as quickly as possible by recompression treatment in a recompression chamber. When treating Decompression Sickness the delay in beginning recompression treatment can be the biggest single cause of residual effects.


    PADI, Encyclopedia of Recreational Diving, 3rd Edition.
  • Saturday, 19 May 2012

    Dive computer buying tips

    Diving computers-watches measure the time and depth of dives to calculate a safe ascent in substitution of simple watches, depth gauges and diving tables or diving planners.

    Things to Consider When Buying a Scuba Diving Computer]

    1. Buttons- Are the buttons easy to use even with dive gloves on?

    2.Display Visibility- Can you read the display even in a low light situation. Are the numbers big enough? Does the background light up if needed? The key numbers you need to be able to see are Depth and Available Bottom Time Remaining. Everything else is a matter of preference.

    The more information you want to see, the smaller it will need to be to fit on the screen.

    3.Display Information- scuba diving computers can display a lot of information. Some things you may see are:
    • Current Depth
    • Max Depth
    • Bottom Time Remaining
    • Ascent Rate Monitors
    • Surface Interval Time
    • No Deco Time Limits For Next Dive
    • Water Temp
    And anything else under the sun you may want to know.

    You need to decide what information is important to you and buy a dive computer that displays that info.

    5. Power On and Off- Some diving computers begin to record the dive automatically and continue to run for hours after the last dive. Some need to be turned on. Are you the forgetful type or not?

    6. Air or Nitrox- Do you dive mixed gas now or plan to in the future? If so you need to buy a dive computer that lets you set the oxygen percentage. You can still use these computers to dive air just set the oxygen % to 21. If you don't plan on diving mixed gas you can save money and buy an air only scuba computer.

    5. Aggressive or conservative- An aggressive computer lets you stay down longer than a conservative one. Some diving computers will be aggressive shallow and conservative deep or vice versa. Some computers will let you adjust this.
    Research the scuba diving computer before hand and pick one that you are comfortable with.

    6. Altitude- Does it adjust automatically, manually or at all for diving at altitude.

    7.vAir-integrated or Stand alone- An air integrated computer will monitor tank pressure and calculate air and bottom time remaining. You can get models that either plug into a hose or even do this wirelessly.
    Stand alone computers don't record this info and you'll need to use a separate pressure gauge.

    8. Batteries- Can you change the batteries yourself or do you need to take it to the shop or even send it back to the manufacturer?

    9.Memory- How many dives will it record? Does it only record the last dive or does it record multiple (usually 10).
    If it only records the last dive you'll have to write the info down in between dives if you want to do a second.
    Does the memory wipe when you turn the power off? Will the dive computer retain that info if the batteries fail?

    10. Downloadable- Can you download the recorded dive to your laptop or desktop computer? Do you have to buy a separate software package or hardware (usb cord or other cable) to do so or does it come with everything?

    11. How do you "Wear" it?- Is it wrist mounted, console style or clip on?

    12. Warranty/Service- What type of warranty does it have? Can you get it serviced locally or will you have to send it to the manufacturer?
    There is obviously a lot to consider when looking at buying a scuba dive computer. Make a list of what you want/need and start reading reviews and manufacturers material until you find one that fits.

    The more options usually the more expensive it'll be.
    If you want a Nitrox compatible, wirelessly air integrated, expanded memory, satellite link up, gps, does everything for you except make the actual dive and it could probably do that remotely too, you're going to pay for it.

    The more bare bones it is the cheaper it'll be.

    Wednesday, 25 April 2012

    Basic skill and Lesson for open water scuba diving

    The basic skill must master by new diver. enjoy

    Swinmming Pool Training

    For those who decide to involved in SCUBA diving. They will go through swimming pool training.The reason is to give introduction scuba diving and to teach how to adapt with atmosphere pressure.

     Here the video

    Saturday, 25 February 2012

    Be A Diver for free

    The "Be A Diver" community project organized by AsiaEvents Exsic and Local Council (MBPJ) of Selangor provides a simple, straightforward message designed to entice the public to participate in underwater activities especially Scuba diving. It also will promote the importance of underwater marine life and conservation.

    What is unique about the program is that the visitors can have a chance to participate in the pool tryouts which has been specially prepared by the organizers for free. Not only to the visitors/participants gets a chance to dive for free but they will be taught by a certified Dive Master on the dive program itself.

     The pool tryouts consists of the basic theories of scuba diving techniques and a practical dive in the scuba pool with the complete scuba diving equipments accompanied by a certified dive master. Each session takes between 15 to 20   minutes with each session consisting of around 1 to 3 participants. Some participants after having done the tryouts was seen signing up for the certification course with the participating dive schools.

    This project will continue to interest  the youths and also the public in general to the sport of scuba diving and in certifying more responsible divers  on every event program and in years to come. The "Be A Diver" community project roadshow will be held every 1st & 3rd week of Sunday around Selangor district. Please check out this page for updates on our next scheduled location soon!

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